Umudike Journal of Engineering and Technology

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike


DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OHIYA CLAY FOR VEGETABLE OIL REFINING

Ugwu, B. I.
Department of Chemical Engineering Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State

Nwanevu, C. C.
Department of Chemical Engineering Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State

Nwankwo, D. I.
Department of Chemical Engineering Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State

Onuoha, S. U.
Department of Chemical Engineering Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State



ABSTRACT

A preliminary investigation was carried out on Ohiya Clay to determine its potential for application as a bleaching earth for vegetable oil refining. Raw clay samples were modified with H2SO4(aq) of varied concentrations of 1M to 5M H2SO4(aq) and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microspectroscopy (SEM). The results 1716.8 – 15916 cm-1 of the FT-IR showed that the raw clay was composed of a low amount of unsaturated hydrocarbons (phenolic and aromatic groups) which is an indication of lower adsorption capacity, compared with that of the modified clay spectra with sharper peaks at 2855.1 – 3011.7 cm-1 of aromatic and phenolic functional groups which are highly unsaturated functional groups that showed a higher degree of adsorptive capacity. The SEM analysis showed that Ohiya clay modified with 5M H2SO4(aq) has the best developed morphology for adsorption. Bleaching performance evaluation was carried out using the modified Ohiya clay and imported bleaching earth (fuller’s earth) on crude palm kernel oil. Modified Ohiya clay gave a good bleaching action with a bleaching efficiency of 88.7549 % for the clay modified with 5M H2SO4(aq) while the imported fuller’s earth gave 88.9244%. With these results, H2SO4(aq)-modfied Ohiya clay which has an efficiency of 88.7549% can be developed to serves as a very close substitute to the imported fuller’s earth.


Keywords: Ohia clay, modification, characterization, palm kernel oil, bleaching performance.


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Conference Code
IECON2019

Conference Title
ENGINEERING FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION, FOOD AND NATIONAL SECURITY

ISBN
978-978-53175-8-9

Date Published
Friday, September 20, 2019

Conference Date
2nd - 4th September, 2019

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